An astronaut (from the Ancient Greek ἄστρον (astron), meaning ‘star’, and ναύτης (nautes), meaning ‘sailor’) is a person trained, equipped, and deployed by a human spaceflight program to serve as a commander or crew member aboard a spacecraft. Although generally reserved for professional space travelers, the term is sometimes applied to anyone who travels into space, including scientists, politicians, journalists, and tourists.
“Astronaut” technically applies to all human space travelers regardless of nationality. However, astronauts fielded by Russia or the Soviet Union are typically known instead as cosmonauts (from the Russian “kosmos” (космос), meaning “space”, also borrowed from Greek). Comparatively recent developments in crewed spaceflight made by China have led to the rise of the term taikonaut (from the Mandarin “tàikōng” (太空), meaning “space”), although its use is somewhat informal and its origin is unclear. In China, the People’s Liberation Army Astronaut Corps astronauts and their foreign counterparts are all officially called hángtiānyuán (航天员, meaning “heaven navigator” or literally “heaven-sailing staff”).
Astronaut team (2022)
- Chief Astronaut: Reid Wiseman.
- 42 active astronauts, 10 candidate astronauts.
- Landing vertical (navy helicopter).
- Landing in snow (navy helicopter).
- Southpole at the Moon and Mars with weird sun-angles (VR).
- Geology (Mars geology time-scale and collecting samples) (Iceland).
- Space training (ISS).
- Moon and Mars surface (swimmingpool).
- Orion (Crew Trainer at JSC).
Artemis I (16-11-2022)
- Male torso called Commander Moonikin Campos. In commander’s seat to provide data on what crew members may experience in flight. In Orion Crew Survival System suit. Named after a key player in bringing Apollo 13 safely back to Earth. Arturo Campos was an electrical engineer who developed a plan to provide the command module with enough electrical power to navigate home safely after an oxygen tank aboard the service module of the Apollo spacecraft ruptured. Commander Moonikin Campos is outfitted with sensors to provide data on what crew members may experience in flight, continuing Campos’ legacy of enabling human exploration in deep space.
- Female torso called Helga. To measure radiation. Without radiation protection vest.
- Female torso called Zohar. To measure radiation. With radiation protection vest (AstroRad).
- Later in the year 2022 the crew for Artemis II will be announced.