NASA astronauts (and Artemis partners)

NASA astronauts

An astronaut (from the Ancient Greek ἄστρον (astron), meaning ‘star’, and ναύτης (nautes), meaning ‘sailor’) is a person trained, equipped, and deployed by a human spaceflight program to serve as a commander or crew member aboard a spacecraft. Although generally reserved for professional space travelers, the term is sometimes applied to anyone who travels into space, including scientists, politicians, journalists, and tourists.

“Astronaut” technically applies to all human space travelers regardless of nationality. Comparatively recent developments in crewed spaceflight made by China have led to the rise of the term taikonaut (from the Mandarin “tàikōng” (太空), meaning “space”), although its use is somewhat informal and its origin is unclear. In China, the People’s Liberation Army Astronaut Corps astronauts and their foreign counterparts are all officially called hángtiānyuán (航天员, meaning “heaven navigator” or literally “heaven-sailing staff”).

Astronauts 1961-1972

CountrySpacecraftLaunching dateAstronautsRevolutionsFlight timeFlight highlights
RVostok 112-4-1961Gagarin11 hr. 48 mins.First manned flight.
USMercury-Redstone 35-5-1961ShepardSub-orbinal15 mins.First American in space.
USMercury-Redstone 421-7-1961GrissomSub-orbinal16 mins.Capsule sank.
RVostok 26-8-1961Titov1625 hrs. 18 mins.More than 24 hours in space
USMercury-Atlas 620-2-1962Glenn34 hrs. 55 mins.First American in orbit.
USMercury-Atlas 724-5-1962Cartenter34 hrs. 56 mins.Landed 250 miles from target.
RVostok 311-8-1962Nikolayev6094 hrs. 22 mins.First group flight. (Vostok 3 and 4)
RVostok 412-8-1962Popovich4570 hrs. 57 mins.Came within 3.1 miles of Vostok 3 on first orbit.
USMercury-Atlas 83-10-1962Schirra69 hrs. 13 mins.Landed 5 miles from target.
USMercury-Atlas 915-5-1963Cooper2234 hrs. 20 mins.First long flight by an American.
RVostok 514-6-1963Bykovsky76119 hrs. 06 mins.Second group flight. (Vostok 5 and 6)
RVostok 616-6-1963Tereshkova457 hrs. 50 mins.Passed within 3 miles of Vostok 5; first moman in space.
RVoskhod 112-10-1964Komarov, Feoktiskov, Yegorov1524 hrs. 17 mins.First 3-man craft.
RVoskhod 218-3-1965Leonov, Belyayev1626 hrs. 02 mins.First man outside spacecraft in 10-minute “walk”. (Leonov).
USGemini 323-3-1965Grissom, Young34 hrs. 53 mins.First manned orbital maneuvers.
USGemini 43-6-1965McDivitt, White6297 hrs. 48 mins.21-minute “spacewalk” (White).
USGemini 521-8-1965Cooper, Conrad120190 hrs. 56 mins.First extended manned flight.
USGemini 74-12-1965Borman, Lovell206330 hrs. 35 mins.Longest space flight.
USGemini 6-A15-12-1965Schirra, Stafford1625 hrs. 52 mins.Rendezvous within 1 foot of Gemini 7.
USGemini 816-3-1966Armstrong, Scott6,510 hrs. 42 mins.First docking to Agena target; mission cut short.
USGemini 9-A3-6-1966Stafford, Cernan4475 hrs. 21 mins.Rendezvous, extra-vehicular activity, precision landing.
USGemini 1018-7-1966Young, Collins4370 hrs. 47 mins.Rendezvous with 2 targets; Agena package retrieved.
USGemini 1112-9-1966Conrad, Gordon4474 hrs. 17 mins.Rendezvous and docking.
USGemini 1211-11-1966Lovell, Aldrin5994 hrs. 33 mins.3 successful extra-vehicular trips.
RSoyuz 123-4-1967Kamarov1726 hrs. 40 mins.Heaviest manned craft; crashed killing Kamarov.
USApollo 711-10-1968Schirra, Eisele, Walter163260 hrs. 09 mins.First manned flight of Apollo spacecraft.
RSoyuz 326-10-1968Beragovoi6094 hrs. 51 mins.Rendezvous with manned Soyuz 2
USApollo 821-12-1968Borman, Lovell, AndersLunar orbital 10147 hrs. 00 mins.First manned voyage around the moon.
RSoyuz 415-1-1969Shatalov4571 hrs. 14 mins.Rendezvous with Soyuz 5.
RSoyuz 515-1-1969Volynov, Teliseyev, Khrunov4672 hrs. 46 mins.Rendezvous with Soyuz 4; Yeliseyev and Khrunov trandfer to Soyuz 4.
USApollo 93-3-1969McDivitt, Scott, Schweickart151241 hrs. 01 mins.Low earth orbit, docking with Lunar Module (LM).
USApollo 1018-5-1969Stafford, Cernan, YoungLunar orbital 31192 hrs. 03 mins.Descent to within 9 miles of moon.
USApollo 1116-7-1969Armstrong, Aldrin, CollinsLunar orbital 31195 hrs. 18 mins.Armstrong and Aldrin on the moon. Time spent on moon 21 hrs. 38 mins.
USApollo 1214-11-1969Conrad, Bean, GordonLunar orbital 45244 hrs. 36 mins.Living and working on the moon. ALSEP station instruments.
USApollo 1311-4-1970Lovell, Haise, SwigertLunar orbital 01142 hrs. 54 mins.Blast oxygen tank, did not land on the moon.
USApollo 14 31-1-1971Shepard, Mitchell, RoosaLunar orbital 34216 hrs. 02 mins.Long walk on the moon, wheelbarrow.
USApollo 15 25-7-1971Scott, Irwin, WordenLunar orbital 74295 hrs. 11 mins.Focus on science, lunar vehicle.
USApollo 1616-4-1972Young, Duke, MattinglyLunar orbital 64265 hrs. 51 mins.Extended stay on the moon, lunar vehicle.
USApollo 177-12-1972Cernan, Schmitt, EvansLunar orbital 75301 hrs. 51 mins.Longest crewed lunar landing mission (12 days 14 hours), greatest distance from a spacecraft during an extravehicular activity of any type (7.6 kilometers (4.7 mi)), longest total lunar surface extravehicular activities (22 hours 4 minutes), largest lunar sample return (approximately 115 kg or 254 lb), longest time in lunar orbit (6 days 4 hours), and most lunar orbits (75). Cernan last Apollo astronaut on the moon (14-12-1972).

Astronaut team (2022)


  • Chief Astronaut: Reid Wiseman.
  • 42 active astronauts, 10 candidate astronauts.


  • Landing vertical (navy helicopter).
  • Landing in snow (navy helicopter).
  • Southpole at the Moon and Mars with weird sun-angles (VR).
  • Geology (Mars geology time-scale and collecting samples) (Iceland).
  • Space training (ISS).
  • Moon and Mars surface (swimmingpool).
  • Orion (Crew Trainer at JSC).

Artemis I (16-11-2022)


  • Male torso called Commander Moonikin Campos. In commander’s seat to provide data on what crew members may experience in flight. In Orion Crew Survival System suit. Named after a key player in bringing Apollo 13 safely back to Earth. Arturo Campos was an electrical engineer who developed a plan to provide the command module with enough electrical power to navigate home safely after an oxygen tank aboard the service module of the Apollo spacecraft ruptured. Commander Moonikin Campos is outfitted with sensors to provide data on what crew members may experience in flight, continuing Campos’ legacy of enabling human exploration in deep space.
  • Female torso called Helga. To measure radiation. Without radiation protection vest.
  • Female torso called Zohar. To measure radiation. With radiation protection vest (AstroRad).

Artemis II (2024)

  • 03-04-2023 NASA reveals the crew for Artemis II. NASA announced that former U.S. Navy fighter pilots Reid Wiseman and Victor Glover, veteran space station astronaut Christina Koch, and rookie Canadian astronaut Jeremy Hansen will crew the Artemis 2 mission to fly around the far side of the moon as soon as late next year (2024), a test flight that will carry the foursome farther from Earth than any humans in history.
  • 01-07-2023 Start training (18 months). Kick-off by  Charles Duke (Apollo 16). All of these astronauts were born after Charles Duke’s landing on the moon in 1972.
  • 02-07-2023 First lessons: Lunar orbital mechanics (for Earth horizon navigation).
  • Reid Wiseman, commmander, USA
  • Victor Glover, pilot, USA
  • Christina Koch, mission specialist, USA
  • Jeremy Hansen, mission specialist, Canada
Crew Artemis II in april 2023
Crew Artemis II in april 2023. NASA astronauts Christina Koch (left), Victor Glover (top), Reid Wiseman (bottom), and Jeremy Hansen (right) pose for an Artemis II crew portrait in training versions of the Orion launch and enter pressure suits.

Artemis III (Moon landing)

  • t.b.a.

Artemis IV (09-2028)

  • ESA Astronaut, t.b.a. Alexander Gerst (Germany)?

Artemis V (09-2029)

  • ESA Astronaut t.b.a. Thomas Pesquet (France)?
Reid Wiseman
Reid Wiseman
Astronaut in space
Astronaut in space