Artemis planning, NASA
- 00-00-1880 Articles by Tsjolkowsky (1857-1935).
- 00-00-1923 Articles by Oberth (1894-1989).
- 16-03-1926 First liquid-fueled rocket by Goddard (1882-1945). Reached 13 meters.
- 00-00-1932 Gyroscopic rocket by Goddard (1882-1945).
- 00-00-1937 V1 and V2 by Wernher von Braun (1912-1977).
- 16-04-1946 First American V2 by Wernher von Braun (1912-1977).
- 00-00-1951 Total of 66 American V2’s launched.
- 00-08-1953 Upgraded V2 called Redstone.
- 00-00-1954 Atlas rocket.
USA rockets (1961-1972)
- Mercury Redstone (1952-1954).
- Thor Delta (Thor from airforce, Jupiter from army with Wernher von Braun).
- Mercury Atlas (1954).
- Atlas Agena.
- Atlas Centaur.
- Gemini Titan II.
- Saturn I.
- Apollo Saturn 1B.
- Apollo Saturn V.
Manned space flights (1961-1972)
|Country||Spacecraft||Launching date||Astronauts||Revolutions||Flight time||Flight highlights|
|USSR||Vostok 1||12-4-1961||Gagarin||1||1 hr. 48 mins.||First manned flight.|
|US||Mercury-Redstone 3||5-5-1961||Shepard||Sub-orbinal||15 mins.||First American in space.|
|US||Mercury-Redstone 4||21-7-1961||Grissom||Sub-orbinal||16 mins.||Capsule sank.|
|USSR||Vostok 2||6-8-1961||Titov||16||25 hrs. 18 mins.||More than 24 hours in space|
|US||Mercury-Atlas 6||20-2-1962||Glenn||3||4 hrs. 55 mins.||First American in orbit.|
|US||Mercury-Atlas 7||24-5-1962||Cartenter||3||4 hrs. 56 mins.||Landed 250 miles from target.|
|USSR||Vostok 3||11-8-1962||Nikolayev||60||94 hrs. 22 mins.||First group flight. (Vostok 3 and 4)|
|USSR||Vostok 4||12-8-1962||Popovich||45||70 hrs. 57 mins.||Came within 3.1 miles of Vostok 3 on first orbit.|
|US||Mercury-Atlas 8||3-10-1962||Schirra||6||9 hrs. 13 mins.||Landed 5 miles from target.|
|US||Mercury-Atlas 9||15-5-1963||Cooper||22||34 hrs. 20 mins.||First long flight by an American.|
|USSR||Vostok 5||14-6-1963||Bykovsky||76||119 hrs. 06 mins.||Second group flight. (Vostok 5 and 6)|
|USSR||Vostok 6||16-6-1963||Tereshkova||45||7 hrs. 50 mins.||Passed within 3 miles of Vostok 5; first moman in space.|
|USSR||Voskhod 1||12-10-1964||Komarov, Feoktiskov, Yegorov||15||24 hrs. 17 mins.||First 3-man craft.|
|USSR||Voskhod 2||18-3-1965||Leonov, Belyayev||16||26 hrs. 02 mins.||First man outside spacecraft in 10-minute “walk”. (Leonov).|
|US||Gemini 3||23-3-1965||Grissom, Young||3||4 hrs. 53 mins.||First manned orbital maneuvers.|
|US||Gemini 4||3-6-1965||McDivitt, White||62||97 hrs. 48 mins.||21-minute “spacewalk” (White).|
|US||Gemini 5||21-8-1965||Cooper, Conrad||120||190 hrs. 56 mins.||First extended manned flight.|
|US||Gemini 7||4-12-1965||Borman, Lovell||206||330 hrs. 35 mins.||Longest space flight.|
|US||Gemini 6-A||15-12-1965||Schirra, Stafford||16||25 hrs. 52 mins.||Rendezvous within 1 foot of Gemini 7.|
|US||Gemini 8||16-3-1966||Armstrong, Scott||6,5||10 hrs. 42 mins.||First docking to Agena target; mission cut short.|
|US||Gemini 9-A||3-6-1966||Stafford, Cernan||44||75 hrs. 21 mins.||Rendezvous, extra-vehicular activity, precision landing.|
|US||Gemini 10||18-7-1966||Young, Collins||43||70 hrs. 47 mins.||Rendezvous with 2 targets; Agena package retrieved.|
|US||Gemini 11||12-9-1966||Conrad, Gordon||44||74 hrs. 17 mins.||Rendezvous and docking.|
|US||Gemini 12||11-11-1966||Lovell, Aldrin||59||94 hrs. 33 mins.||3 successful extra-vehicular trips.|
|USSR||Soyuz 1||23-4-1967||Kamarov||17||26 hrs. 40 mins.||Heaviest manned craft; crashed killing Kamarov.|
|US||Apollo 7||11-10-1968||Schirra, Eisele, Walter||163||260 hrs. 09 mins.||First manned flight of Apollo spacecraft.|
|USSR||Soyuz 3||26-10-1968||Beragovoi||60||94 hrs. 51 mins.||Rendezvous with manned Soyuz 2|
|US||Apollo 8||21-12-1968||Borman, Lovell, Anders||Lunar orbital 10||147 hrs. 00 mins.||First manned voyage around the moon.|
|USSR||Soyuz 4||15-1-1969||Shatalov||45||71 hrs. 14 mins.||Rendezvous with Soyuz 5.|
|USSR||Soyuz 5||15-1-1969||Volynov, Teliseyev, Khrunov||46||72 hrs. 46 mins.||Rendezvous with Soyuz 4; Yeliseyev and Khrunov trandfer to Soyuz 4.|
|US||Apollo 9||3-3-1969||McDivitt, Scott, Schweickart||151||241 hrs. 01 mins.||Low earth orbit, docking with Lunar Module (LM).|
|US||Apollo 10||18-5-1969||Stafford, Cernan, Young||Lunar orbital 31||192 hrs. 03 mins.||Descent to within 9 miles of moon.|
|US||Apollo 11||16-7-1969||Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins||Lunar orbital 31||195 hrs. 18 mins.||Armstrong and Aldrin on the moon. Time spent on moon 21 hrs. 38 mins.|
|US||Apollo 12||14-11-1969||Conrad, Bean, Gordon||Lunar orbital 45||244 hrs. 36 mins.||Living and working on the moon. ALSEP station instruments.|
|US||Apollo 13||11-4-1970||Lovell, Haise, Swigert||Lunar orbital 01||142 hrs. 54 mins.||Blast oxygen tank, did not land on the moon.|
|US||Apollo 14||31-1-1971||Shepard, Mitchell, Roosa||Lunar orbital 34||216 hrs. 02 mins.||Long walk on the moon, wheelbarrow.|
|US||Apollo 15||25-7-1971||Scott, Irwin, Worden||Lunar orbital 74||295 hrs. 11 mins.||Focus on science, lunar vehicle.|
|US||Apollo 16||16-4-1972||Young, Duke, Mattingly||Lunar orbital 64||265 hrs. 51 mins.||Extended stay on the moon, lunar vehicle.|
|US||Apollo 17||7-12-1972||Cernan, Schmitt, Evans||Lunar orbital 75||301 hrs. 51 mins.||Longest crewed lunar landing mission (12 days 14 hours), greatest distance from a spacecraft during an extravehicular activity of any type (7.6 kilometers (4.7 mi)), longest total lunar surface extravehicular activities (22 hours 4 minutes), largest lunar sample return (approximately 115 kg or 254 lb), longest time in lunar orbit (6 days 4 hours), and most lunar orbits (75). Cernan last Apollo astronaut on the moon (14-12-1972).|
Other space flights relevant to Artemis
- 00-00-1965 Start of the Deep Space Network (DSN) (used for Rover, New Horizons, Voyager etc.).
- 08-02-1974 Last Skylab flight (SL-4, SLM-3).
- 17-07-1975 Last Apollo-Soyuz flight (one mission only).
- 03-05-1998 Last Spacelab flight (Neurolab, STS-90).
- 20-11-1998 First module International Space Station (ISS) (Zarya, launched by a Proton rocket).
- 02-11-2000 ISS is permanently occupied (ongoing).
- 08-07-2011 Last Spaceshuttle mission (STS-135).
Deep Space Network (DSN) (1965)
- Near Space Network (NSN) Direct-To-Earth Services (NSN DTE)
- Return Transit
- The Near Space Network’s Launch Communications Segment (LCS) includes three ground stations along Florida’s coast to meet the specific needs of the SLS rocket and will provide links to both Orion and SLS during prelaunch and launch for Artemis I. Specifically, the first two stations along the rocket’s flight path will provide uplink and downlink communications between the rocket and mission controllers. In the final phases of ascent, the third station will downlink high-rate telemetry and video from SLS while Orion connects to communications relay satellites. The Near Space Network’s navigation services extend to Orion’s journey from low-Earth orbit to the Moon and back through ground stations in Santiago, Chile, and Hartebeesthoek, South Africa.
- Near Space Network Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (NSN TDRS)
- Low-Earth Orbit
- ICPS Separation
- Handover to DSN
- Return Trajectory Burn
- The Near Space Network also provides services to Artemis I through NASA’s Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) constellation, which can provide near-continuous communications services. Located about 22,000 miles above Earth, TDRS relay data from spacecraft at lower altitudes to ground antennas during launch and low-Earth orbit phases of the Artemis I mission. TDRS will continue service until Orion and ICPS leave its coverage volume, when NASA’s Deep Space Network takes over, and then again on Orion’s return to Earth, from the final return trajectory correction burn through splashdown.
- Deep Space Network (DSN)
- Journey to the Moon
- Distant Tetrograde Orbit
- Return Transit
- Return Trajectory Correction Burn
- The Deep Space Network (DSN) will handle communications beyond low-Earth orbit. Additionally, the network will facilitate communications during the deployment of CubeSats that will fly as secondary payloads on Artemis I with their own science and technology missions. The DSN consists of three facilities spaced equidistantly from each other )approximately 120 degrees apart in longitude’ around the world. These sites are at Goldstone, near Barstow, California; near Madrid, Spain; and near Canberra, Australia. The strategic placement of these sites permits constant communication with spacecraft as Earth rotates before a distant spacecraft sinks below the horizon at one DSN site, another site can pick up the signal and carry on communicating.
- The Near Space Network and Deep Space Network will work together to support navigation for Orion so that engineers can employ a technique called three-way Doppler tracking. Using this method (with two ground stations on Earth in contact with Orion simultaneously, one from each network) NASA can triangulate Orion’s location relative to the ground stations.
NASA Management (2022)
- NASA Administrator: Bill Nelson.
- Artemis Mission Manager: Mike Serafin.
- Associate Administrator for Technology, Policy and Strategy: Bhavya Lal.
- Launch Director: Charlie Blackwell-Thompson.
- Program Manager: John Honeycutt.
- Artemis I Lead Flight Director: Rick Labrode.
- Artemis I Ascent and Entry Flight Director: Judd Frieling.
- Artemis I Recovery Director: Melissa Jones.
- Orion Program Manager: Howard Hu.
- Orion Program Deputy Manager: Debbie Korth.
- Orion European Service Module Program Manager (ESA): Philippe Deloo.
- Chief Astronaut: Reid Wiseman.
NASA Mission Management (2022)
- Launch Control Center (LCC) at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC, Titusville, Florida):
- Launch Director (LD). Polls Go/ No go for Launch.
- Control Rooms (Firing rooms).
- Until cleared tower.
- Mission Control Center (MCC) at Johnson Space Center (JSC, Houston, Texas):
- When cleaded Tower.
- Chief Astronaut: Reid Wiseman.
- 42 active astronauts, 10 candidate astronauts.
- Landing vertical (navy helicopter).
- Landing in snow (navy helicopter).
- Southpole at the Moon and Mars with weird sun-angles (VR).
- Geology (Mars geology time-scale and collecting samples) (Iceland).
- Space training (ISS).
- Moon and Mars surface (swimmingpool).
- Orion (Crew Trainer at JSC).
- Later in the year 2022 the crew for Artemis II will be announced.
- 00-00-2011 Super heavy-lift expendable launch vehicle under development by NASA.
- 05-12-2014 Orion’s Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1). Orion launched on a Delta IV Heavy (3 boosters).
- 00-00-2017 Start of a program to return to the Moon and visit Mars. Introduction Space Launch System (SLS).
- 00-00-2019 Program is named ‘Artemis’ in honor of Apollo’s twin sister in Greek mythology, the goddess of the Moon.
- 00-00-2019 Water Flow Test Mobile Launcher (ML).
- 18-03-2021 Core Stage Test RS-25 engines.
- 06-04-2021 Orion Drop Test.
- 30-09-2021 RS-25 engines Test Series.
- 00-00-2021 AFT Segments Transport.
- 00-00-2021 Solid Booster Stacking.
- 00-00-2021 Mobile Launcher Roll Back.
- 00-00-2021 Launch Countdown Test.
- 00-00-2021 Orion Jettison Fairing installation.
- 00-00-2021 Total of 48 Engine tests.
- 00-00-2021 Total of 25 Drop tests for the parachutes.
- 00-00-2021 Total of 3 Flight tests for the LAS.
- 00-00-2021 Thermal Vacuum Test of 47 days.
- 21-06-2022 Wet Dress Rehearsal (WDR). Loading and unloading propellant.
- 21-07-2022 Solid rocket booster static test. Full duration static fire of a 5 segment booster. Same type that will be used by SLS Artemis.
- 01-08-2022 Software updates after the Wet Dress Test Campaign are installed in the Test Configuration Identification (TCID). This is a software set for simulation and will be used for launch. Loaded in the controlroom on 03-08-2022.
- 02-08-2022 Final Orion power-up.
- 03-08-2022 Payload items in CM and working.
- 03-08-2022 Upper stage.
- 03-08-2022 Launch Vehicle Stage Adapter (LVSA) closed.
- 03-08-2022 Core Stage Forward Skirt Area.
- 03-08-2022 Engine section.
- 03-08-2022 Boosters.
- 04-08-2022 The Core Stage Intertank Area is still open because access is needed for the Flight Safety System or Flight Termination System Test (FTST). Test scheduled for 08-08-2022 (1).
- 04-08-2022 Final Launch Team Training Event. Full simulation of the launch countdown all the way to terminal count.
- 05-08-2022 Boosters Forward Assemblies are still open because access is needed for the Flight Safety System or Flight Termination System Test (FTST). Test scheduled for 08-08-2022 (2).
- 13-08-2022 Closing of the hatch.
- 18-08-2022 Roll-out.
Artemis in progress
- 01-01-2022 ISS permanently occupied (Russian participation until 2024).
- 28-06-2022 Launch Pathfinder mission Cislunar Autonomous Positioning System Technology Operations and Navigation Experiment (Capstone). It will enter an elongated orbit called a Near Rectilinear Halo Orbit (NRHO). Once in the NRHO, Capstone will fly within 1,000 miles of the Moon’s North Pole on its near pass and 43,500 miles from the South Pole at its farthest. It will repeat the cycle every six and a half days and maintain this orbit for at least six months to study dynamics. Tyvak Nano-Satellite Systems.
Artemis I Introduction
- Launch date (expected): 29-08-2022.
- Uncrewed test flight to provide a foundation for deep space exploration.
- Uncrewed lunar orbit and return to the Earth.
- Testing of the new heat shield.
- Launch pad 39B.
- Height of the rocket is 112 meters (32 floors).
- The SLS (Block 1) configuration has 8.8 Million pounds of thrust and is the most powerful rocket in the world.
- Boosters in 5 segments (Spaceshuttle had 4).
- Orion will go further than any spacecraft for humans has ever flown.
- Mission is over a million miles (to the moon and back and all kinds of orbits around the Moon testing the spacecraft).
- Duration of the Artemis I mission is 42 days.
- Orion will come back faster and hotter than any spacecraft has before at 32 times the speed of sound: Mach 32 (39.000 km/hour). The Spaceshuttle was Mach 25 (30.000 km/hour).
- It is going to dip in to the atmosphere and bleed off some of the speed before it is starts decending through the atmosphere.
- The heat shield of Orion is built so that it will stand the hotter environment as it is coming in at Mach 32. Coming back from Mars it might be Mach 36 (44.000 km/hour).
- The heat shield will slowdown Orion to 300 miles/hour before the parachutes are deployed.
- The parachute system includes 11 parachutes. Embedded in several parachutes are pyrotechnic riser cutters, which use fuses set to ignite at specific times and push blades through bulletproof materials to sever the lines at precise moments and allow the parachutes to unfurl to complete the deployment sequence. Within 10 minutes of descent through Earth’s atmosphere, everything must deploy and assemble itself in a precise sequence to slow Orion and its crew for a safe splashdown in the ocean. The parachute system also must be able to keep the crew safe in several failure scenarios, such as mortar failures that could prevent a single parachute from deploying, launch aborts, or other conditions that produce loads close to or exceeding the maximum material capability.
Artemis I Objectives
- Demonstrate re-entry with the heat shield.
- Demonstrate the vehicle in flight environment: Launch, propulsion, lift off, max Q, seperation events, communication and navigation via Deep Space Network (DSN), through the van Allen Belt and in deep space high radiation environment.
- A Van Allen radiation belt is a zone of energetic charged particles, most of which originate from the solar wind, that are captured by and held around a planet by that planet’s magnetosphere. Earth has two such belts, and sometimes others may be temporarily created. The belts are named after James Van Allen, who is credited with their discovery. Earth’s two main belts extend from an altitude of about 640 to 58,000 km above the surface, in which region radiation levels vary.
- Retrieve the spacecraft with high precicion avionics aboard, retrieving data from the backout period with the peak heat and plasma.
- Payload objectives:
- 10 cube sats, 25 pounds each. For research at lower costs but higher risks in deep space.
- In Orion is a male test torso to test the impact of deep space radiation on the human body and to test the forces on the crew members bodies. Outside the Van Allen Belts the rediation exists of solar particles and other radiation from the galaxy. Radiation is one of the top challenges for human exploration. It effects women different than men. There is also a female test torso aboard.
- Voice activated virtual assistent (named Callisto, Artemis hunting companion).
Artemis I Launch Windows
- 29-08-2022 Target Launch Date (Monday)
- 8:33-10:30 a.m. EDT.
- 8:33 + 4 hours = 12:33 UTC.
- 8:33 + 6 hours = 14:33 CEST Amsterdam.
- 120 minutes.
- 30-08-2022 No Launch Window
- Due to launch constraint.
- 31-08-2022 No Launch Window
- Due to launch constraint.
- 01-09-2022 No Launch Window
- Due to launch constraint.
- 02-09-2022 Target Launch Date (Friday)
- 12:48-2:48 a.m. EDT (16:48 UTC).
- 12:48 + 6 hours = 16:33 CEST Amsterdam.
- 120 minutes.
- 2:17-4:17 p.m. EDT (18:17 UTC).
- 2:17 + 6 hours = 20:17 CEST Amsterdam.
- 120 minutes.
- 3:44-5:44 p.m. EDT (19:44 UTC).
- 3:44 + 6 hours = 21:44 CEST Amsterdam.
- 120 minutes.
- 05-09-2022 Target Launch Date (Monday)
- 5:12-6:32 p.m. EDT (21:12 UTC).
- 5:12 + 6 hours = 23:12 CEST Amsterdam.
- 90 minutes.
- 6:57-7:21 p.m. EDT (22:57 UTC).
- 6:57 + 6 hours = 00:57 CEST Amsterdam.
- 24 minutes.
Artemis planning (2023-2032)
- 29-08-2022 Artemis I.
- 22-12-2022 TO2-IM, Intuitive Machines (IM-1) mission 1. Intuitive Machines will provide lunar surface access, lunar orbit delivery and communications at lunar distance. Intuitive Machines.
- 00-12-2022 TO2-AB, Peregrine mission 1. The Peregrine Lunar Lander precisely and safely delivers payloads to lunar orbit and the lunar surface. Payloads can be mounted above or below the decks, inside or outside of enclosures, and can remain attached or deployed according to their needs. Astrobotics.
- 00-00-2023 IM-2 mission.
- 00-00-2023 In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Tech demonstration converting lunar ice to H2O using Nova-C (Luna Lander by Intuitive Machines).
- 00-00-2023 Hydrogen Fuel Cells For Lunar Exploration – Demo 1 delivered to surface of the Moon via Commercial Lunar Payload Services (CLPS) lander Astrobotic Technology | Blue Origin | Ceres Robotics | Deep Space Systems | Draper | Firefly Aerospace | Intuitive Machines | Lockheed Martin Space | Masten Space Systems | Moon Express | Orbit Beyond | Sierra Nevada Corporation | SpaceX | Tyvak Nano-Satellite Systems
- 00-00-2023 Delivery of Starship Human Landing System (HLS) for uncrewed demo landing mission. SpaceX
- 00-11-2023 Masten Mission One: Tools for mapping the lunar surface temperature, radiation, and hydrogen delivered by Masten Space Systems via their XL-1 lander. Masten Space Systems.
- 00-11-2023 Griffin Mission One: Delivery of NASA’s VIPER rover on the Griffin lunar lander to the lunar surface by Astrobotics.
- 00-03-2024 IM-3.
- 00-00-2024 Blue Ghost M1. Will deliver a suite of 10 NASA-sponsored payloads, as well as other commercial payloads, to the lunar surface. Firefly aerospace.
- 00-00-2024 Delivery of the Lunar Terrain Vehicle (LTV).
- 00-00-2024 Artemis II: 4-person lunar flyby. First Canadian to go to the moon.
- 00-11-2024 Launch of the Power and Propulsion Element (PPE) by Maxar and the Habitation and Logistics Outpost (HALO) by Northrop Grumman as an integrated assembly. First two Lunar Gateway modules.
- 00-00-2025 Artemis III: 4-person lunar orbit with 2-person lunar landing. With the Human Landing System (HLS)?
- 00-00-2026 Artemis IV: 4-person lunar orbit and delivery of the I-HAB for Gateway. Habitat for astronauts when they visit the Gateway. ESA.
- 00-00-2027 Artemis V: Lunar landing with the Lunar Terrain Vehicle (LTV).
- 00-00-2027 Delivery of the European System Providing Refueling, Infrastructure and Telecommunications (ESPRIT) for the Gateway. ESA.
- 00-00-2028 Artemis VI: Delivery of the Gateway Airlock Module (enables docking EVAs).
- 00-00-2028 Delivery of a Gateway station module.
- 00-00-2029 Artemis VII: Delivery of Habitable Mobility Platform to surface. The habitable mobility platform would enable crews to take trips across the Moon lasting up to 45 days. A lunar foundation surface habitat would house as many as four crew members on shorter surface stays.
- 00-00-2030 Artemis VIII: Delivery of lunar surface logistics.
- 00-00-2031 Artemis IX: Delivery of the Foundational Surface Habitat. The SH is a fixed surface habitat offering a home base for astronauts, hub for communications, science facility, extravehicular activity (EVA) equipment repair site, waste processing facility, supply hub, surface operations base, and test bed for sustained surface presence and preparation for Mars missions.
- 00-00-2032 Artemis X: Delivery of lunar surface logistics.